This article will introduce expressions and statements in Go.
Simply speaking, an expression represents a value and a statement represents an operation. However, in fact, some special expressions may be composed of and represent several values, and some statements may be composed of several sub operations/statements. By context, some statements can be also viewed as expressions.
Simple statements are some special statements. In Go, some portions of all kinds of control flows must be simple statements, and some portions must be expressions. Control flows will be introduced in the next Go 101 article.
This article will not make accurate definitions for expressions and statements. It is hard to achieve this. This article will only list some expression and statement cases. Not all kinds of expressions and statements will be covered in this article, but all kinds of simple statements will be listed.
Most expressions in Go are single-value expressions. Each of them represents one value. Some expressions each represents multiple values. Such expressions are called multi-value expressions.
Later, out of the current article, unless otherwise specified, when an expression is mentioned, we mean it is a single-value expression.
Value literals, variables, and named constants are all single-value expressions. They also called elementary expressions.
The operations (without the assignment parts) using the operators introduced in the article common operators are all single-value expressions.
If a function returns at least one result, then its calls (without the assignment parts) are expressions. In particular, if the function returns more than one results, then its calls belong to multi-value expressions. Calls to functions without results are not expressions.
Methods can be viewed as special functions. So the above mentioned function cases also apply to methods. Methods will be explained in detail in the article method in Go later.
In fact, later we will learn that custom functions, including methods, are all function values, so they are also (single-value) expressions. We can learn more about function types and values later.
Channel receive operations (without the assignment parts) are also expressions. Channel operations will be explained in the article channels in Go later.
Some expressions in Go, including the just mentioned channel receive operations, may have optional results in Go. Such expressions can present as both single-value and multi-value expressions, depending on different contexts. We can learn such expressions in other Go 101 articles later.
x op= y
operations.
x++
and x--
.
Again, channel receive and sent operations will be introduced in the article channels in Go.
Note, x++
and x--
can't be used as expressions.
And Go doesn't support the ++x
and --x
syntax forms.
{
and ends with a }
.
A code block may contain many sub statements.
return
lines in function declarations.
// Some non-simple statements.
import "time"
var a = 123
const B = "Go"
type Choice bool
func f() int {
for a < 10 {
break
}
// This is an explicit code block.
{
// ...
}
return 567
}
// Some simple statements.
c := make(chan bool) // c is a channel value of type "chan bool".
a = 789
a += 5
f() // here f() is a simple statement.
a = f() // here f() is used as the source value of a pure assignment.
a++
a--
c <- true // a channel send operation (a simple statement).
<-c // a channel receive operation (used as a simple statement).
z := <-c // a channel receive operation (used as an expression).
// Some expressions.
123
true
B
B + " language"
a - 789
a > 0 // an untyped boolean value
f() // an expression which can be viewed as an int value.
f // a function value of type "func ()".
<-c // an expression which can be viewed as a bool value.
// It can also be used as a simple statement.
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